Gyan,  Jaankari,  जनरल

Rashtrapati Shasan Kya Hota Hai, Kab Lagu Hota Hai, Anuched, Kitni Baar Laga Hai, Ki Adhiktam Awadhi, Aur Anya Jankari Hindi Me

Rashtrapati Shasan, Rashtrapati Shasan Kya Hota Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan in Hindi, Rashtrapati Shasan Anuched, Rashtrapati Shasan kya hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Kab Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan ki Adhiktam Awadhi, Rashtrapati Shasan Kitni Baar Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan Kise Kahate Hain, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hota hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hua Tha, Rashtrapati Shasan Mein Kya Hota Hai, President's Rule in Hindi, President Rule Hindi Me, Anuched 365, Anuched 365 Kya Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kahan Lagu Hua Tha

Rashtrapati Shasan (President’s Rule) raajy sarakaar ke nilamban aur kendr sarkaar ke seedhe shaasan ko laagoo karane ko sandarbhit karata hai. Kendr sarakaar, raajy ka pratyaksh niyantran letee hai aur raajyapaal iska sanvaidhaanik pramukh ban jaata hai. Vidhaanasabha ya to bhang kar dee jaatee hai ya phir chhantanee kar dee jaatee hai. Aisee sthiti chunaav aayog ko chhah maheene ke bheetar phir se chunaav karaane ke lie majaboor karatee hai.


Vishay Soochi (Table of Contents):

  1. Rashtrapati Sashan Kya Hota Hai (President’s Rule in Hindi)
  2. Rashtrapati Sashan Kis Anuched Mein Hai
  3. Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hota Hai?
  4. Rashtrapati Shasan Lagne ke Bad Kya Hota Hai?
  5. Rashtrapati Shasan Ki Adhiktam Awadhi
  6. Rashtrapati Shasan Kitni Baar Aur Kahan Kahan Lagu Hua Tha
  7. Raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Kab Laga
  8. Anuched 365 Ka Durupyog
  9. Samapan

Rashtrapati Shasan Kis Anuched Mein Hai

Bharat ke sanvidhaan ka anuched 356 Bharat sarakaar adhiniyam, 1935 kee dhaara 93 par aadhaarit hai. Anuched 356 ke anusaar, sanvaidhaanik kartavyon kee viphalata ke aadhaar par Bharat ke kisee bhee raajy par Rashtrapati Shasan lagaaya ja sakata hai.

Rashtrapati Shasan do prakaar ka hota hai:

  1. Yadi Rashtrapati raajy ke raajyapaal se ek report praapt karata hai ya anyatha aashvast ya santusht hai ki raajy kee sthiti aisee hai ki raajy sarakaar sanvidhaan ke praavadhaanon ke anusaar shaasan par nahin chal sakatee hai.
  2. Anuched 365 ke anusaar, yadi koi raajy sangh dvaara die gae sabhee nirdeshon ka paalan karane mein viphal rahata hai to Rashtrapati Shasan lagaaya ja sakata hai.

Saral shabdon mein, Rashtrapati Shasan tab hota hai jab raajy sarakaar nilambit ho jaatee hai aur kendr sarakaar seedhe raajyapaal ke kaaryaalay (kendr dvaara niyukt) ke maadhyam se raajy ka prashaasan karatee hai. Ise raajy aapaatakaal (State Emergency) ya sanvaidhaanik aapaatakaal (Constitutional Emergency) bhee kaha jaata hai.


Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hota Hai?

Bharat ke sanvidhaan ka anuched 356 Bharat ke Rashtrapati ko kendreey mantriparishad kee salaah par raajy par is niyam ko laagoo karane kee shakti deta hai. Niyam laagoo karane se pahale Rashtrapati ko kuchh sharton par vichaar karana hoga jo niche diye gaye hain.

  • Yadi Rashtrapati santusht hain ki aisee sthiti utpann ho gaee hai jisamen raajy kee sarakaar sanvidhaan ke praavadhaanon ke anusaar theek se kaam nahin kar pa rahee hai.
  • Raajy Sarakaar us raajy ke raajyapaal dvaara nirdhaarit samay ke bheetar ek neta ko mukhyamantree ke roop mein chunane mein asamarth hai.
  • Mukhyamantree se sadan mein alpasankhyak samarthan hone ke kaaran gathabandhan toot raha hai, aur die gae samay avadhi mein bahumat saabit karane mein viphal rahate hain.
  • Sadan mein avishvaas mat ke kaaran vidhaanasabha mein bahumat kee haani.
  • Praakrtik aapadaon, yuddh ya mahaamaaree jaisee sthitiyon ke kaaran chunaav sthagit kar diya gaya.

Rashtrapati Shasan Lagne ke Bad Kya Hota Hai?

Rashtrapati Shasan, Rashtrapati Shasan Kya Hota Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan in Hindi, Rashtrapati Shasan Anuched, Rashtrapati Shasan kya hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Kab Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan ki Adhiktam Awadhi, Rashtrapati Shasan Kitni Baar Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan Kise Kahate Hain, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hota hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hua Tha, Rashtrapati Shasan Mein Kya Hota Hai, President's Rule in Hindi, President Rule Hindi Me, Anuched 365, Anuched 365 Kya Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kahan Lagu Hua Tha

Ek baar Rashtrapati Shasan (President’s Rule) kisee raajy par lagae jaane ke baad, koee bhee bada sarakaaree nirnay nahin liya ja sakata hai. Jab tak Rashtrapati Shasan nirast nahin kiya jaata aur agalee sarakaar nahin ban jaatee, tab tak koee bada neetigat nirnay laagoo nahin kiya ja sakata aur na hee kisee pariyojana ko manjooree dee ja sakatee hai.

  • Raajyapaal Rashtrapati kee or se raajy ke prashaasan ka sanchaalan karata hai. vah raajy ke mukhy sachiv aur any salaahakaaron/prashaasakon kee madad leta hai, jinhen vah niyukt kar sakata hai.
  • Rashtrapati ke paas yah ghoshana karane kee shakti hai ki raajy vidhaayika kee shaktiyon ka sansad dvaara upayog kiya jaega.
  • Raajy vidhaan sabha ko Rashtrapati dvaara ya to nilambit ya bhang kar diya jaega.
  • Jab sansad satr mein nahin hotee hai, to Rashtrapati raajy ke prashaasan ke sambandh mein adhyaadesh la sakata hai.

Rashtrapati Shasan Ki Adhiktam Awadhi

Sanvidhaan ke anuched 356 ke tahat Rashtrapati Shasan kee ghoshana (proclaimation) 6 mahine tak chalatee hai. Is samay seema ko charanon mein teen saal tak badhaaya ja sakata hai. Rashtrapati Shasan, Rashtrapati dvaara kisee bhee samay nirast kiya ja sakata hai aur isake lie sansad kee sveekrti kee aavashyakata nahin hotee hai.


Rashtrapati Shasan Kitni Baar Aur Kahan Kahan Lagu Hua Tha

Raajy (State)Kitni Baar Laga
Andhra Pradesh3
Arunachal Pradesh2
Assam4
Bihar8
Delhi1
Goa5
Gujarat5
Haryana3
Himachal Pradesh2
Jammu and Kashmir6
Jharkhand3
Karnataka6
Kerala4
Madhya Pradesh4
Maharashtra2
Manipur10
Meghalaya2
Mizoram3
Nagaland4
Orissa6
Pondicherry6
Punjab9
Rajasthan4
Sikkim2
Tamil Nadu5
Tripura3
West Bengal4
Uttar Pradesh9

Raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Kab Laga (Dhyaan Dene Yogy Ghatanaen)

Rashtrapati Shasan, Rashtrapati Shasan Kya Hota Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan in Hindi, Rashtrapati Shasan Anuched, Rashtrapati Shasan kya hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Kab Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan ki Adhiktam Awadhi, Rashtrapati Shasan Kitni Baar Laga, Rashtrapati Shasan Kise Kahate Hain, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hota hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kab Lagu Hua Tha, Rashtrapati Shasan Mein Kya Hota Hai, President's Rule in Hindi, President Rule Hindi Me, Anuched 365, Anuched 365 Kya Hai, Rashtrapati Shasan Kahan Lagu Hua Tha

Haal hee me Rashtrapati Shasan 12 November, 2019 ko lagaya gaya tha. Maharashtra ke raajyapaal Bhagat Singh Koshyari ne ek chunaav ke baad raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan lagaaya, jisase sarakaar nahin banee. Sabhee chaar pramukh dalon – Bhartiye Janta Party (BJP), Shivsena, Nationalist Congress (NCP), aur Congress Party ke baad sankat shuroo ho gaya – sarakaar banaane ka daava nahin kiya aur bahumat saabit karane ke lie gathabandhan karane mein viphal rahee.


2000 ke baad se raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan 15 baar lagaya jaa chuka hai jo niche diye gaye hain.

(2001) Manipur 2000 ke chunaavon ke baad, sarakaar ek saal se jyaada nahin chalee. Maheenon kee araajakata, kathit ghodon ke vyaapaar aur avishvaas ke vote ke baad, Manipur ko 3 June, 2001 ko Rashtrapati Shasan ke tahat laaya gaya. Yah 277 dinon tak chala.


(2002) Uttar Pradesh 8 March se 3 May tak, raajy ke chunaav ke anishchit parinaam ke kaaran Uttar Pradesh mein Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo hua tha.

(2002) Jammu and Kashmir 18 October se 2 November tak, raajy ke chunaav ke anishchit parinaam ke kaaran Jammu and Kashmir mein President’s Rule laagoo hua tha.


(2005) Bihar Raajy chunaav ke anishchit parinaam ke kaaran 7 March se 24 November tak Bihar mein Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo raha. Is maamale mein, Supreme Court ne phaisala diya ki nirvaachit vidhaanasabhaon ko naee sarakaar banaane ka mauka die bina Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo karana asanvaidhaanik tha.

(2005) Goa CM Pratap Singh Rane dvaara vidhaanasabha mein vivaadit vishvaas mat haasil karane ke baad raajy kee sarakaar barkhaast kar dee gaee. 4 March se 7 June tak yahaan Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo tha.


(2007) Karnataka 9 November se 11 November tak raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo raha aur phir chunee huee sarakaar ke bahumat ko khone ke kaaran 20 November se 27 May, 2008 tak laagoo raha.


(2008) Jammu and Kashmir Shri Amarnath Shrine Board ko van bhoomi ke aavantan ke khilaaph 10 dinon ke bade virodh pradarshan ke maddenajar, tatkaaleen Mukhyamantree, Gulam Nabi Azad kee sarakaar, alpasankhyak People’s Democratic Party (PDP) dvaara samarthan vaapas lene ke baad alpamat mein aa gaee thee. 11 July, 2008 se 5 January, 2009 ke beech raajy mein Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo tha.


(2009) Jharkhand 19 January se 29 December ke beech, Jharkhand mein sarakaar ke bahumat ke nukasaan ke kaaran Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo hua tha. 2010 mein, 1 June se 11 September tak Jharkhand mein President’s Rule laagoo tha. 2013 mein, bhaajapa ke sattaaroodh gathabandhan ke sahayogee jhaamumo ne sarakaar se apana samarthan vaapas le liya. Mukhyamantree Arjun Munda ko isteepha dena pada aur Rashtrapati Shasan 18 January se 12 July tak laagoo raha.


(2014) Andhra Pradesh aur Telangana 2 June ko Telangana kshetr mein Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo kiya gaya aur 100 dinon ke baad 8 June ko aandhr pradesh ke kshetron ka vibhaajan kiya gaya.

(2014) Delhi Vidhaanasabha mein Jan Lokpaal Bill ko pesh karane mein viphal rahane ke baad Arvind Kejriwal ne Delhi ke mukhyamantree pad se isteepha de diya. Delhi ko 14 February ko Rashtrapati Shasan ke tahat laaya gaya aur 11 February, 2015 tak isake adheen raha.

(2014) Maharashtra Raajy mein Congress ke netrtv vaalee sarakaar ko usake sahayogiyon se alag hone ke baad barkhaast kar diya gaya tha. 28 September se shuroo hokr 33 dinon ke lie Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo tha.


(2015) Jammu and Kashmir 2015 ke Jammu aur Kashmir chunaavon mein ek trishanku phaisale ne 9 January se 1 March tak 51 dinon ke lie President’s Rule lagaaya. Agale saal Mukhyamantree Mufti Mohammad Sayeed kee mrtyu ke kaaran phir se 87 dinon ke liye 8 January se 4 April tak Rashtrapati Shasan laga.


(2016) Arunachal Pradesh Congress vidhaayakon ne raajy sarakaar ko asthir karate hue bhaajapa ke saath haath milaaya. Isalie, Rashtrapati Shasan ko 25 January se 19 February tak laagoo kiya gaya. Uchchatam nyaayaalay (Supreme Court) ne Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo karane kee ghoshana kee.

(2016) Uttarakhand Congress Party kee raajy ikaee mein vibhaajan ke baad CM Harish Rawat kee sarakaar ke patan ke kaaran raajy mein do baar, 27 March se 21 April tak aur phir 22 April se 11 May tak Rashtrapati Shasan laagoo raha.


(2018) Jammu and Kashmir Mukhyamantree Mehbooba Mufti ne gathabandhan sahayogee bhaajapa dvaara samarthan vaapas lene ke baad isteepha de diya. Raajy 19 June se 30 October tak Rashtrapati Shasan ke adheen tha. 31 October ko, Jammu-Kashmir ko do kendr shaasit pradeshon – Jammu and Kashmir, aur Ladakh mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha, aur jiski vajeh se President’s Rule apne aap samaapt ho gaya.


Anuched 365 Ka Durupyog (Misuse)

Anuched 356 ne kendr sarakaar ko raajy sarakaaron par apane adhikaar kee muhar lagaane ke lie vyaapak adhikaar die. Haalaanki yah keval desh kee akhandata aur ekata ko banae rakhane ke lie ek saadhan ke roop mein tha, lekin isaka istemaal kendr kee raajaneetik virodhiyon dvaara shaasit raajy sarakaaron ko bedakhal karane ke lie kiya gaya tha.

  • 1966 aur 1977 ke beech, Indira Gandhi kee sarakaar ne vibhinn raajyon ke khilaaph lagabhag 39 baar isaka istemaal kiya.
  • S.R. Bommai Case (1994) mein, Bharat ke sarvochch nyaayaalay ne Anuched 356 lagaane ke lie sakht disha nirdesh die.
  • Anuched 356 lagaane ko kendr dvaara uchit thaharaaya jaana chaahie.
  • Nyaayaalay ke paas nilambit ya bhang raajy sarakaar ko purva roop me laane kee shakti hai yadi aarop lagaane ka aadhaar amaany aur asanvaidhaanik paaya jaata hai.
  • Anuched 356 lagaane ke sansadeey anumodan se pahale raajy vidhaanasabha ko bhang nahin kiya ja sakata hai aur raashtrapati keval vidhaanasabha ko nilambit kar sakata hai.
  • Raajy mantraalay ke khilaaph bhrashtaachaar ke gambheer aarop aur vitteey asthirata Anuched 356 lagaane ke lie aadhaar nahin hain.
  •  Anuched 356 ka upayog Raajy sarakaar dvaara koee bhee kaarravaee jo dharmanirapekshata kee suraksha ke liye hai (jo ki sanvidhaan kee mool visheshata hai) ke lie aadhaar nahin ho sakate.
  • Anuched 356 ka upayog sattaaroodh party (intraparty) mein kisee bhee asahamat muddon ko sulajhaane ke lie nahin kiya ja sakata hai.
  • Yadi raajy ka mantraalay isteepha deta hai ya bahumat se khaarij ya haar jaata hai, to raajyapaal raashtrapati ko Rashtrapati Shasan ko laagoo karane kee salaah nahin de sakate hain jab tak ki vaikalpik sarakaar ke gathan ke lie raajyapaal dvaara paryaapt kadam nahin uthae jaate hain.
  • Anuched 356 ke tahat shakti ka upayog keval parishram ke maamale mein kiya jaana hai, kyunki yah ek asaadhaaran/vishesh shakti hai.

Samapan

Kisee bhee raajy par Rashtrapati Shasan lagaane ke lie sansadeey sveekrti aavashyak hai. Rashtrapati Shasan kee ghoshana ko sansad ke donon sadanon mein jaaree kie jaane ke do maheene ke bheetar anumodit kiya jaana chaahie. Anumodan ek saadhaaran bahumat ke maadhyam se hota hai. Rashtrapati Shasan shuroo mein chhah maheene (6 months) kee avadhi ke lie hota hai. Baad mein, ise har chhah maheene mein sansadeey manjooree ke saath teen saal (3 years) kee avadhi ke lie badhaaya ja sakata hai.

Sanvidhaan ka 44th Sanshodhan (1978) ek varsh kee avadhi se pare Rashtrapati Shasan lagaane par kuchh baadhaon mein laaya gaya. Yah kahata hai ki Rashtrapati ke niyam ko ek varsh se adhik nahin badhaaya ja sakata hai, yadi:

  1. Bharat mein ek rashtriye aapaatakaal (National Emergency) hai.
  2. Bharat nirvaachan aayog pramaanit karata hai ki raajy mein vidhaanasabha chunaav karaane mein kathinaiyon ke kaaran raajy mein President’s Rule jaaree rakhana aavashyak hai.

Toh iss article me hamne Rashtrapati Shasan (President’s Rule) ke baare mein vistaar se charcha. Hamne ye jaana ki Rashtrapati Shasan kya hota hai, Rashtrapati Shasan ki adhiktam awadhi kitni hoti hai, yah kitni baar, aur kab kab laga, Rashtrapati Shasan kis anuched ke antragat aata hai, aur isse judi har uss mehatvapoorna jankari aapko pradaan ki.

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